Kent, Surrey and Sussex Community Rehabilitation Company
SAFEGUARDING ADULT and CHILD POLICY
Modern Slavery / Human Trafficking / Sexual Exploitation
1 Modern slavery
Modern slavery includes exploitation in the sex industry, forced labour, domestic servitude in the home and forced criminal activity. These types of crime are often called human trafficking. We do know that modern slavery does exist in the UK although its true extent is presently unknown as this crime remains largely invisible to the general public. It can be perpetrated against men, women and children and include victims that have been brought from overseas, and vulnerable people in the UK, being forced to work illegally against their will in many different sectors, including brothels, cannabis farms, nail bars and agriculture.
2 Trafficking in adults
2.1 The act: recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons.
The means: threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.
The purpose: exploitation includes at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others, or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
2.2 Trafficking people is a criminal offence. The fact that the adult consents to the intended exploitation is irrelevant where any of the means (above) have been used.
2.3 Trafficking of children requires only the “act” and “purpose” above. The “means” does not have to be shown.
3 Sexual exploitation
3.1 Sexual exploitation involves someone taking advantage of the child or adult sexually, for their own benefit through threats, bribes, violence and humiliation. The perpetrator uses their power to get the child or adult to do sexual things for the perpetrators own or other people’s benefit or enjoyment.
3.2 In relation to adults who are at risk of exploitation there is a spectrum of seriousness. Less serious instances might include a one off exploitative situation between a couple while at the other end of the spectrum there maybe instances of organised crime where adults are trafficked and sexually exploited on a large scale.
4 Abusers / Perpetrators
It is abuse when someone misuses their power or control over another person, causing harm or distress. The abuser / perpetrator could be in a close relationship with the adult at risk. They could be someone who the adult depends upon and trusts. A perpetrator could be;
- relative or other family member
- person entrusted to act on behalf of an adult in some aspect of their affairs
- service or care provider
- health or social care worker or professional
- volunteer or another service user
- persons who have no previous connection to the victim.
5 Potential victims
5.1 Potential victims are people who are vulnerable, for example:
- people facing poverty in countries of origin
- people who are already victims of abuse in countries of origin and believe this behaviour of abuse, power and control to be ‘normal’ and for some an improvement in their living conditions
- adults and children who have learning disabilities
- in care / care leaver and / or individuals with limited family support networks
- individuals from minority groups
- have little or no education and are unable to read or write
- previous experience of being sexually abused or exploited
- socially excluded / isolated
- troubled families
- mental health needs
- those who won’t be missed.
5.2 It is important to note that many victims of modern day slavery are British adults and children.
6 Indicators of slavery
- signs of physical and psychological abuse, look malnourished or unkempt, appear withdrawn
- not allowed to travel on their own, seem under the control or influence of others, rarely interact or appear unfamiliar with their neighbourhood or where they work
- living in dirty, cramped or overcrowded accommodation, and / or living and working at same address
- no ID, few personal possessions, wearing the same clothes everyday
- avoid eye contact, appear frightened or hesitant to talk to strangers and fear law enforcers, not knowing who to trust, fear of violence to them or their family, fear of deportation.
7 Indicators of domestic servitude
- living with and working for a family in a private home
- not eating with the rest of the family or being given only leftovers to eat
- no proper sleeping place or sleeping in shared space for example the living room
- no private space
- forced to work in excess of normal working hours or being ‘on-call’ 24 hours per day
- employer reports them as a missing person
- employer accuses person of theft or other crime related to the escape
- never leaving the house without employer.
8 Indicators of human trafficking and sexual exploitation
- adverts for sexual services offering women from particular ethnic or national groups
- sleeping on work premises
- movement of women between brothels or working in alternate locations
- women with very limited amounts of clothing or a large proportion of their clothing is ‘sexual’
- only being able to speak sexual words in local language or language of client group
- having tattoos or other marks indicating ‘ownership’ by their exploiters
- person forced, intimidated or coerced into providing services of a sexual nature
- person subjected to crimes such as abduction, assault or rape
- someone other than the potential victim receives the money from clients
- health symptoms (including sexual health issues)
- signs of ritual abuse and / or witchcraft (juju)
- drug and alcohol misuse
- mood swings or changes in emotional wellbeing
- low self-esteem, self-harming behaviour including cutting, overdosing, eating disorders and promiscuity.
- inappropriate use of internet and forming on-line relationships
- bruising and other physical symptoms
- frequently missing, staying out, or returning late with no plausible explanation.
8.1 Additional signs that may suggest an adult may be at risk of human trafficking;
- working in various locations
- having limited freedom of movement
- known to beg for money
- being excessively afraid of being deported
- being required to earn a minimum amount of money everyday.
9 Missing, Exploited and Trafficked
9.1 Going missing, being exploited and being trafficked are commonly linked within the work of child protection. This trio of concerns are commonly referred to as ’Missing, Exploited and Trafficked (MET)’. Whilst these crimes might not involve sexual harm, they may involve being exploited in other ways such as being made to work with little or no payment, they may involve physical and / or emotional harm. Data suggests there is a strong link between each of these issues and the risk of children being sexually harmed.
9.2 Similarly, it is important for professionals within adult safeguarding to consider the possibility of sexual exploitation and / or human trafficking if an adult goes unexpectedly missing and particularly if a pattern emerges.
10 What do I do after I identify a “possible” victim of trafficking?
10.1 Contacting the Police
- If you believe an individual is at risk of harm or exploitation, consider whether to refer to the police.
- If you believe a child is being exploited you must report to the police as well as children’s services.
10.2 Child and Adult Safeguarding Procedures
- Seeking advice is crucial when considering any safeguarding issues. Discuss concerns with colleagues and your line managers. No procedures can cover every eventuality; if in doubt seek advice from a manager.
10.3 If you suspect that a child, young person or a vulnerable adult is at risk of exploitation you must follow the safeguarding procedures and make a referral to your local children’s and / or adults social care.
10.4 Record your actions and any professional judgements made.
11 Historic trafficking
There is a 24/7 national human trafficking hotline set up by the government as part of a campaign to end modern slavery. This is mainly intended for the general public to report possible concerns and seek advice or help Telephone: 0800 012 1700.
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